Theory and Doctrines

Theory and Doctrines (1)

The article aims to identify the dependence of military expenditures and selected economic determinants on the example of the V4 countries in the years 1999-2020. The following are selected as economic determinants: the size of the gross domestic product, the rate of inflation, the debt and deficit of the government sector and unemployment. Correlation analysis proved the expected relationship between the gross domestic product and the military expenditure of Hungary and especially Poland. The relationship between military spending and unemployment was confirmed for Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, the expected relationship between military spending and government debt for the Czech Republic. The linear regression model confirmed the positive effect of the gross domestic product on military expenditure in the case of Poland, the effect of the increase in military expenditure due to rising inflation in Hungary and the negative effect of increasing state indebtedness in the case of the Czech Republic. At the same time, the results did not confirm the uniformity of the factors affecting the size of the military factors in the analyzed V4 countries.
The paper demonstrates that the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) is one very useful analytical tool and method to help Allied political decision makers and military strategists to rethink the Alliance’s new role and mission in Africa, as the Southern neighbour of NATO and the EU having great possibilities to influence, either positively or negatively, the European and Euro-Atlantic security. Thus, the paper’s scope is to use MCA in order to highlight the importance of Africa for NATO’s Geopolitics and what Member States should undertake in order to join the competitive North African and Sahel region’s arms and presence race against the increased Russian and Chinese economic and military interests.
The article deals with the issue of the cognitive pyramid and the possible use of intelligence analysis in the context of gaining the understanding and wisdom of users of information using this pyramid. The cognitive pyramid is used to define the terms date, information, knowledge, understanding and wisdom that make up the various levels of the pyramid. The paper attempts to discuss concepts in different models of the pyramid. It briefly describes intelligence in the context of the use of intelligence by means of a cognitive pyramid. Intelligence is a special kind of knowledge. This article also seeks to explore how intelligence creation can be explained using a cognitive analytical pyramid model.
The theoretical journal Vojenské rozhledy was founded in 1920. Its publishing was interrupted twice, but it has continued until now. The aim of the article is to evaluate the importance of the journal for development of the military and security theory and practice and to reflect on its possible future. Attention is paid to the focus of the magazine during the Czechoslovak First Republic. The article also deals with the attempt to issue Vojenské rozhledy during the Second World War and unsuccessful efforts to restore it after 1945. The article also deals with the circumstances of publishing and aiming of the magazine Vojenská mysl, which replaced Vojenské rozhledy in the period 1950–1991. Since 1992 it has been continuously published under the original name Vojenské rozhledy. The author concluded in his analysis that, despite the changed conditions, which make it difficult to publish theoretical journals in general, the Vojenské rozhledy are irreplaceable in the Czech conditions.
Security and defence issues have always been the subject of scientific and artistic interest. The topicality of the researched issues is especially emphasized in the conditions of changing the concepts of security and bringing them from the traditional level to a level reflecting the modern reality. The article attempts to review the genesis and development of the security concept by presenting related and fundamental concepts, related and synonymous terms of the term "security", and various levels of security. The authors try to briefly describe the problem, which is reflected in a number of Bulgarian and international scientific and legislative sources, and which reflects the research purpose of the presented work.
The article deals with the artillery manual gunnery in accordance with the modernization of the czech artillery. The article describes the results of research aimed at innovating manual (alternative) methods of determining the firing data so that they are applicable on the contemporary battlefield and are compatible with the nature of the data used by artillery within the NATO. The issue of the article is aimed primarily at determining the firing data by the use of meteorological techniques, while presenting the outputs of a comparative analysis of procedures used in the czech artillery with the procedures applied by the US army. The main contribution of the article is a critical evaluation of the approaches of both armies and a proposal for innovation of existing procedures so that the most beneficial requirements are applied and negatives are eliminated.
IoT devices (sensors, drones, cameras) are gaining more and more emphasis on military operations. The application of IoT elements in the military environment increases situational awareness and supports the acquisition and maintenance of information superiority. The information they provide about the enemy, the area of operations, and the location and status of our soldiers and assets can contribute to the successful execution of operations at the tactical, operational and strategic levels. However, they can also pose serious threats if their vulnerabilities allow the data they collected to leak or they provide access to the info-communication networks used for the enemy. In this article, the author examined the vulnerabilities of these IoT devices using keyword analysis. After drawing conclusions from the analysis of the relevant literature, he compared the results with the general-purpose IoT threats and attacks typical of today, like distributed denial of service attacks, security, software, security and privacy issues.
Similar to other fields, also in the military one, the Artificial Intelligence has become recently an evident solution for optimizing specific processes and activities. Therefore, this research paper aims to highlight the potential uses of Artificial Intelligence in the military operations carried out by the Land Forces. In this regard, analysing the framework of the operations process and applying suitable research methodology, the main findings are related to AI’s contributions in optimizing commander’s decisions during the progress of planning and execution. On the other hand, picturing the AI upgrated combat power of the Land Forces is another significant result of this study.
This paper aims to explain the tension between the phenomenon of whistle-blowing and military values, embodied in core martial virtues of loyalty and courage, which are integral in all armies. By defining these virtues in the military context, the author demonstrates how expressing dissent in the military is not necessarily opposed to loyalty and courage, but rather that it is necessary if conflict of different loyalties is properly managed and if courage is properly understood. Only by ensuring that armed forces are led by those who truly understand military values and martial virtues, and that whistle-blowing can be both patriotic and heroic, can we strive for a lasting peace. By courageously expressing loyalty to his nation, institution and profession, a soldier may act heroically by blowing the proverbial whistle.
This study deals with long-term monitoring of physical fitness of soldiers, namely members of the 31st Radiation, Chemical and Biological Protection Regiment in order to determine whether the annual fitness test has rising trend, or in another words, whether the military service physical training process is fittingly effective. The study was carried out by comparing the assessment of physical fitness each year 2012-2019. The monitored group consisted of 316 professional soldiers, who participated in this assessment regularly, without interruption in the same disciplines. Due to the managed long-term military physical training process, overall improvement in the strength and endurance disciplines throughout the monitoring period took place. Based on the acquired data, it may be stated that the annual testing showed rising trend and thus the efficiency of the in-service physical training process proved to be good and appropriate.