Strategic Management

Strategic Management (1)

The US military presence in Afghanistan has been the subject of retrospective analyzes that facilitated the identification and learning of important lessons for future military actions. This article analyses, through the case study method, the way defense resources were managed from a sustainable development perspective, focusing on the durable effects of the main projects aimed at ensuring this country’s initial steps towards a sustainable development destination. As a result, this study points to the positive potential that the military instrument could have in a country’s efforts to achieve sustainable development goals, highlighting the way that unsustainable management practices can compromise or even nullify the progress in this area. Consequently, the main product of this research is a model of unsustainable use of defense resources that decision makers should know and avoid in the future, to obtain long-term beneficial results.
The article presents a summary of analytical outcomes aimed at mapping current NATO and EU approaches to capability planning and their impact on national planning processes, which were carried out by security and defence institutions. The outcomes point out the fact that significant number of NATO nations and EU member states are using approaches to capability planning which reflect specifically national strategic objectives. It is of note that no country has implemented procedures that could be considered as standardised in terms of a single planning process within NATO or the EU. On the other side, analyses point out the fact that NATO and EU planning processes can be hardly expected to be unified in the short term. Nevertheless, NATO and EU member countries should pay close attention to the outputs of their national planning processes in order to comply with the single set of capability requirements as implemented in the relevant NATO and EU planning processes.
The article outlines the outcome of a comprehensive researche aiming at the enhancement of decision making within the defence and operational planning processes. Both processes differ in purpose, neverthelles they are challenged by  the very same problém to find solutions with maximum operational effectiveness of armed forces capabilities at minimum cost to achieve objectives.  It applies constructive simulation namely the software instruments of MASA SWORD and assess its potential to support the process of capability requirements identification and validation of potential alternatives to achieve objectives. It provides reasonable evidence that constructive simulation is a valuable instrument to support the evidence based decision making within in the processes of defence planning and operations planning proces. Constructive simulation allows to identify the most suitable solutions in terms of both operational effectiveness and costs.  
The article deals with the method of application of evaluation tools, applicable for the evaluation of the preparedness assessment of undeclared headquarters and units of the Czech Armed Forces. As a part of the research there were analysed the approaches of the Czech Republic and NATO using of a comparative analysis supplemented by a structured interview. The results of the research confirmed the inconsistent approach to the application of standardized tools and methods for evaluation of units, which are not declared for the NATO and the EU Task Forces. Based on the results of the analysis and with the utilization of the best practice approaches, there was formulated an innovative approach to assessment of the required capabilities of all headquarters and units. The evaluation of these preparedness is carried out at the end of each Czech Armed Forces operational training cycle.
Experienced experts in military modernization projects use a new generic implementation tool in defence planning to compile a comprehensive implementation plan for acquisitions. A software tool based on MS Excel facilitates the linking of a planning tool to create an implementation plan. The functional analysis matrix created by the software tool is suitable for the evaluation of DOTMLPFI functional areas within individual phases, especially the implementation phase and the evaluation phase. The resulting product is a checklist for the full implementation of a military project describing its life cycle with all major milestones, which respects the Czech Defence Standard and compatibility with NATO doctrine.
The article is a creative elaboration and proposal for optimization of selected activities of the human resources management process in the Ministry of Defense, which have a fundamental influence on achieving the set goals of personnel policy of the Ministry of Defense. The article builds on the analysis of the “status quo” of the human resource management in the Ministry of Defense, carried out with the help of dimensional and stakeholder analysis, sector analysis PESTLE-M, and questionnaire survey with a sample of officers (students of career courses KVD and KGŠ). It also uses the results of capability-based scenario, on which a prediction of the future needs of personnel and financial resources is calculated and demonstrated. For selected activities of the human resources management process their possible content is discussed, as well as the effects (or the necessity to set them accordingly) of internal and external process controllers.
The paper analyses differences in remuneration of professional soldiers in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic between 1999 and 2020. This structural analysis focuses on changes in respective remuneration systems and their design. Results of the presented research enable to identify differences in the development of remuneration of professional soldiers after the split of the Czechoslovak Federation in 1993. The paper submits development of the amounts of salary for selected military ranks, their comparison and relation to general trends in domestic labor market and relation to average costs of living in respective countries. Between 2016 and 2019, salaries of professional soldiers grew higher in the Czech Republic than in the Slovak Republic, in 2020, the pay gap is already narrowing.
The article deals with the issue of identifying required material reserves, also referred to as strategic or emergency reserves. These reserves are managed by state authority as part of national crisis preparedness. The article explores how scenarios can be used as a method for planning, i.e. determining adequate, realistic, and affordable material reserves. A scenario-based analysis, well proven in the defence planning domain, is identified as a method offering a high degree of analytical rigor and traceability of resulting requirements. Selected planning scenarios clearly must reflect national threat/hazard and risk assessments. They also have to reflect other important national policies, such as those governing economy, industry, health care, or environment. The illustrative conduct of the initial steps of the proposed method is demonstrated using Latvia’s security policy circumstances.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons still represent a relevant threat despite international treaties and regulations. International projects like the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) of European Union (EU) appears as a suitable way of the further development when considered both complexity and expensiveness of the countermeasures to the CBRN. In this work, basic principles of PESCO, limitations, opportunities and expected directions of innovations were searched. The final recommendations on PESCO projects in the CBRN field are founded on the reached findings. Recommendations and conclusions on limited PESCO efficacy on one side and opportunity to resolve weakness of the Army of the Czech Republic (AČR) in the CBRN by collaboration in the EU on the other were particularly described in this paper. Without the collaboration, the AČR will hardly reflect the progress on CBRN defense.
Over the last few years, a need for reinforcing the NATO-EU mutual coherence has become increasingly apparent. The EU and NATO have recently initiated the steps to consolidate the strategic cooperation where a way ahead to converge NDPP and CSDP planning process was also underpinned. The recent introduction of new tools tailored to get more effective the CSDP process offers new opportunities for facilitating a convergence of EU and NATO planning approaches. Even if it is impossible to assume that the Alliance's and the Union's planning processes would become identical, the implementation of PESCO and other subsequent procedural tools has created a room for potential synchronization and harmonization of respective planning processes. The paper summarises findings on certain parts of both processes which could be brought closer, in terms of time and procedures, without affecting the autonomy of both organizations in any way.